DEITY OF JESUS THE CHRIST
pages are in draft form and may be changed at any time. REVISED 19
JAN 2019 @ 1200 USA MT.
explanation of the Holy Trinity is an explanation of the Deity of
Jesus The Christ. If one is going to trust God some understanding
of God is essential.
popular teachers, the doctrine of The Holy Trinity did not
originate with Constantine or even Rome; the earliest disciples of
Jesus The Christ discussed this ARTICLE of THE ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN
FAITH in well documented manuscripts.
encountering those who consider themselves Christian and those who
may be seeking the Lord I find that most do not give a clear or
even rudimentary explanation of the Holy Trinity a complete
understanding of which can only come through the power of the Holy
Once I am able
to see the awakening of a desire to discuss the subject and move
beyond a rudimentary discussion of Holy Scripture into the
miraculous work of the disciples of the first centuries, from whom
much valuable study and supporting information on the Holy Trinity
can be found in the old creeds, I find it difficult to get to that
information with a pilgrim once the word Catholic is mentioned.
I find myself
struggling with the Anti-Catholic bigotry, slander of the
Theotokos and Jewish Supremacy of those deluded by End-Time
Heretics, rather than discussing how effective the Athanasian
Creed can be in refuting the early Gnostic statements which are
CONTINUOUSLY raising an ugly Anti-Christian head.
about the Holy Trinity opens a window for cultic leaders to
mislead new pilgrims about the nature of God superficially using
scripture having a hidden agenda to promote some other
non-biblical practice and promoting a Church much like we find
described in Ezekiel Chapter 8.
REFERS TO HIMSELF AS THE SON OF MAN.
THE SUFFERING MESSIAH.
JESUS THE CHRIST IS PRE-EXISTENT AND UNCREATED.
THE ANGEL OF THE LORD or THE ANGEL OF JEHOVAH.
JESUS THE CHRIST IS: THE ONE MEDIATOR, ADVOCATE AND INTERCESSOR.
JESUS THE CHRIST IS: THE LIVING WORD or LOGOS. THE LORD. THE
CHRIST. THE CREATOR.
1. IRENAEUS AGAINST
2. IRENAEUS AGAINST
HERESIES BOOK 3 CHAPTER VI. THE HOLY GHOST, THROUGH THE OLD
TESTAMENT SCRIPTURES, MADE MENTION OF NO OTHER GOD OR LORD,
SAVE HIM WHO IS THE TRUE GOD.
AGAINST HERESIES BOOK 3 CHAPTER XVI. PROOFS FROM THE
APOSTOLIC WRITINGS, THAT JESUS CHRIST WAS ONE AND THE SAME, THE
ONLY BEGOTTEN SON OF GOD, PERFECT GOD AND PERFECT MAN.
AGAINST HERESIES BOOK 4 CHAPTER XXV. BOTH COVENANTS WERE
PREFIGURED IN ABRAHAM, AND IN THE LABOUR OF TAMAR; THERE WAS,
HOWEVER, BUT ONE AND THE SAME GOD TO EACH COVENANT.
SAINT AUGUSTINE, ON CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE I, Chapter 5. 397 A.D.
OF CHALCEDON 451 A.D. Definition of the Union of the Divine and
Human Natures in the PERSON
J. APOSTLES CREED.
Character of the Ecumenical Creeds.
IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH
THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE
OF SECTION I.
JESUS REFERS TO HIMSELF AS THE SON OF MAN:
In his book, APOLOGETICS AN
INTRODUCTION, William Lane Craig writes.
seems to me very likely
Jesus did claim to be the Son of Man. Most people think this
refers to Jesus' humanity, just as the title Son of
to his deity. But this fails to make into account the Jewish
of the term. In the book of Daniel, the Son of
Man is a
figure who will come at the end of the world to establish his
of God and judge mankind. This was Jesus' favorite self‑
and is the title found most frequently in the gospels
times). Yet remarkably, this title is found only once
Gospels in the rest of the New Testament. That shows that the
of Jesus as Son of Man was not a title that arose in later
usage and was then read back into the Gospels. There seems
be no good reason to deny that Jesus regarded Himself
the Son of Man.
some critics are willing to allow this, but they maintain in
Himself Son of Man Jesus merely meant "a human person, just
Old Testament prophet Ezekial referred to Himself as a son of man.
as C.F.D. Moule of Cambridge University points out, With Jesus
is a crucial difference. For Jesus did not refer to Himself as a
of man, like Ezekial, but as the Son of Man. Most critics have
overlooked Jesus' constant use of the definite article with the
By calling Himself the Son of Man, Jesus was directing
to the divine end‑time figure of Daniel 7.
the intertestament period, this title the Son of Man was
of the divine person who would come to usher in the
It was this title that Jesus seized upon and used to
He was. It may well be that Jesus preferred this title to Messiah
the later title had become so overlaid with political
considerations in Jewish thinking that to claim to be
would obscure rather than elucidate the true nature of
Dan 7:13 I saw in the
night visions, and, behold, one like the Son
of man came with the
clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of
days, and they brought
him near before him.
Dan 7:14 And there was
given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom,
that all people,
nations, and languages, should serve him: his
dominion is an
everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and
his kingdom that which
shall not be destroyed.
The expression, THE SON OF
MAN, reaches dramatic significance at the
trial appearance of Jesus
The Christ before the High Priest on the day of the
The High Priest is answered
by Christ with the quotation from the Hebrew
Tanakh. The High Priest is
confronted with a choice. Recognize that Jesus is
the God who will ultimately
judge him. Or, declare Christ a Blasphemer.
64 Jesus saith unto him,
Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye
see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming
in the clouds of heaven.
65 Then the high priest rent his
clothes, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have
we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy.
What think ye? They answered and said, He is guilty of death.
62 And Jesus said, I am:
and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of
power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
63 Then the high
priest rent his clothes, and saith, What need we any further
64 Ye have heard the blasphemy: what think ye? And
they all condemned him to be guilty of death.
67 Art thou the Christ?
tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not
68 And if I also ask [you], ye will not answer me,
nor let [me] go.
69 Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the
right hand of the power of God.
70 Then said they all, Art
thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I
71 And they said, What need we any further witness? for
we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.
B. THE SUFFERING
"The concept of a
suffering Messiah as opposed to a conquering and ruling
king was unheard of."
Matt 8:20 And
Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have holes, and the
birds of the air have
nests; but the Son of man hath not where to
lay his head.
Matt 9:6 But that ye may
know that the Son of man hath power on
to forgive sins, (then saith he to the sick of the palsy,)
Arise, take up thy bed,
and go unto thine house.
Matt 10:23 But when they
persecute you in this city, flee ye into
another: for verily I
say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over
the cities of Israel,
till the Son of man be come.
Mark 8:31 And he began
to teach them, that the Son of man must
suffer many things, and
be rejected of the elders, and of the
chief priests, and
scribes, and be killed, and after three days
Mark 8:38 Whosoever
therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my
words in this adulterous
and sinful generation; of him also shall
the Son of man be
ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his
Father with the holy
C. JESUS THE CHRIST IS
PREEXISTENT AND UNCREATED:
Robert P. Lightner wrote in
his book EVANGELICAL THEOLOGY concerning the
preexistence of Jesus the
the birth of the Son of God did not signal his beginning.
always existed as God's Son before He was born of Mary. He always
eternal as God himself. When evangelicals refer to the
They mean He existed eternally as the second person of the
claim for Christ's pre‑existence is based on ample biblical
support for the Savior's Deity is also support for his eternal
The Doctrine of the Trinity provides a strong support for the
existence of Christ. The statements, that he is God, and always
stand or fall together.
and titles of Christ used in the Old Testament lend strong support
His eternal preexistence. Jesus the Christ is as eternal as the
names were assigned to him in his preincarnate state. For
is called, "Jehovah our righteousness" (Jer. 23:5‑6;
1 Cor 1:30).
Jer 23:5 Behold, the
days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise
unto David a righteous
Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper,
shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.
Jer 23:6 In his days
Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell
safely: and this is his
name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD
Cor 1:30 But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made
unto us wisdom, and
righteousness, and sanctification, and
names Jehovah and Elohim are used of Christ (Isa. 40:3; Luke 3:4).
Isa 40:3 The voice of
him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare
ye the way of the LORD,
make straight in the desert a highway for
Luke 3:4 As it is
written in the book of the words of Esaias the
prophet, saying, The
voice of one crying in the wilderness,
Prepare ye the way of
the Lord, make his paths straight.
Micah wrote of the Son of
God as "from of old" (Mic. 5:2)".
Micah 5:2 But thou,
Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little
among the thousands of
Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth
unto me that is to be
ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have
been from of old, from
Habakkuk refers to God's
eternal nature (Hab. 1:12).
Hab 1:12 Art thou not
from everlasting, O LORD my God, mine Holy
One? we shall not die. O
LORD, thou hast ordained them for
judgment; and, O mighty
God, thou hast established them for
the Son is as eternal as God Himself. Hundreds of years before
conceived by the Holy Spirit, Isaiah called the Son yet unborn
God, the everlasting Father" ( Isa. 9:6).
Isa 9:6 For unto us a
child is born, unto us a son is given: and
the government shall be
upon his shoulder: and his name shall be
Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting
Father, The Prince of
D. THE ANGEL OF THE LORD
or THE ANGEL OF JEHOVAH.
THEEPIPHANIES OF JESUS
THE CHRIST AS THE ANGEL OF THE LORD
Robert P. Lightner wrote in
his book EVANGELICAL THEOLOGY concerning the
preexistence of Jesus the
angel of Jehovah is identified as Christ in his preincarnate
further support is gained for his preexistence. The
follows along these lines: The angel of Jehovah is identified as
Genesis 16:7-13; 22:15-18".
Gen 16:7 And the angel
of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the
wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.
Gen 16:8 And he said,
Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go?
And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.
Gen 16:9 And the angel
of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit
thyself under her hands.
Gen 16:10 And the angel
of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly,
that it shall not be numbered for
Gen 16:11 And the angel
of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt
bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath
heard thy affliction.
Gen 16:12 And he will be
a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's
hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his
Gen 16:13 And she called
the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me:
for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?
Gen 22:15 And the angel
of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time,
Gen 22:16 And said, By
myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done
this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son:
Gen 22:17 That in
blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy
seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the
sand which is upon the
sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies;
Gen 22:18 And in thy
seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou
hast obeyed my voice.
other Scripture the angel is an altogether distinct person from
Zec 1:12 Then the angel
of the LORD answered and said, O LORD of hosts, how long wilt thou
not have mercy on Jerusalem and on the
cities of Judah, against
which thou hast had indignation these threescore and ten years?
Zec 1:13 And the LORD
answered the angel that talked with me with good words and
Only the second person of the Trinity is seen in bodily, visible
New Testament. It would seem to follow, therefore,
person of the Trinity was the one who appeared bodily
testament. After the incarnation the angel of Jehovah no
Both the angel in the Old Testament and the Son in the
the Father. This provides additional identification of
as the same and thus supports Christ's eternal preexistence."
of Jesus The Christ in the old testament
the disciple and martyr Stephen testifies of the preexisting
deity of Jesus The Christ.
deity of the I AM so easily summarized as the Holy
Notice – the glory of god
- the angel of the lord
Notice - the church in the
1Then said the high priest, Are these things so?
2And he said, Men, brethren, and fathers, hearken; The
God of glory appeared unto our father Abraham, when he was in
Mesopotamia, before he dwelt in Charran,
3And said unto him, Get thee out of thy country, and from
thy kindred, and come into the land which I shall shew thee.
4Then came he out of the land of the Chaldaeans, and
dwelt in Charran: and from thence, when his father was dead, he
removed him into this land, wherein ye now dwell.
5And he gave him none inheritance in it, no, not so much
as to set his foot on: yet he promised that he would give it to
him for a possession, and to his seed after him, when as yet he
had no child.
6And God spake on this wise, That his seed should sojourn
in a strange land; and that they should bring them into bondage,
and entreat them evil four hundred years.
7And the nation to whom they shall be in bondage will I
judge, said God: and after that shall they come forth, and serve
me in this place.
8And he gave him the covenant of circumcision: and so
Abraham begat Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day; and Isaac
begat Jacob; and Jacob begat the twelve patriarchs.
9And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into
Egypt: but God was with him,
10And delivered him out of all his afflictions, and gave
him favour and wisdom in the sight of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and
he made him governor over Egypt and all his house.
11Now there came a dearth over all the land of Egypt and
Chanaan, and great affliction: and our fathers found no
12But when Jacob heard that there was corn in Egypt, he
sent out our fathers first.
13And at the second time Joseph was made known to his
brethren; and Joseph's kindred was made known unto Pharaoh.
14Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him,
and all his kindred, threescore and fifteen souls.
15So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he, and our
16And were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the
sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of
Emmor the father of Sychem.
17But when the time of the promise drew nigh, which God
had sworn to Abraham, the people grew and multiplied in Egypt,
18Till another king arose, which knew not Joseph.
19The same dealt subtilly with our kindred, and evil
entreated our fathers, so that they cast out their young children,
to the end they might not live.
20In which time Moses was born, and was exceeding fair,
and nourished up in his father's house three months:
21And when he was cast out, Pharaoh's daughter took him
up, and nourished him for her own son.
22And Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the
Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds.
23And when he was full forty years old, it came into his
heart to visit his brethren the children of Israel.
24And seeing one of them suffer wrong, he defended him,
and avenged him that was oppressed, and smote the Egyptian:
25For he supposed his brethren would have understood how
that God by his hand would deliver them: but they understood not.
26And the next day he shewed himself unto them as they
strove, and would have set them at one again, saying, Sirs, ye are
brethren; why do ye wrong one to another?
27But he that did his neighbour wrong thrust him away,
saying, Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us?
28Wilt thou kill me, as thou diddest the Egyptian
29Then fled Moses at this saying, and was a stranger in
the land of Madian, where he begat two sons.
30And when forty years were expired, there appeared to
him in the wilderness of mount Sina an angel of the Lord in a
flame of fire in a bush.
31When Moses saw it, he wondered at the sight: and as he
drew near to behold it, the voice of the LORD came unto him,
32Saying, I am the God of thy fathers, the God of
Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Then Moses
trembled, and durst not behold.
33Then said the Lord to him, Put off thy shoes from thy
feet: for the place where thou standest is holy ground.
34I have seen, I have seen the affliction of my people
which is in Egypt, and I have heard their groaning, and am come
down to deliver them. And now come, I will send thee into Egypt.
35This Moses whom they refused, saying, Who made thee a
ruler and a judge? the same did God send to be a ruler and a
deliverer by the hand of the angel which appeared to him in the
36He brought them out, after that he had shewed wonders
and signs in the land of Egypt, and in the Red sea, and in the
wilderness forty years.
37This is that Moses, which said unto the children of
Israel, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of
your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear.
38This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness
with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and with our
fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us:
39To whom our fathers would not obey, but thrust him from
them, and in their hearts turned back again into Egypt,
40Saying unto Aaron, Make us gods to go before us: for as
for this Moses, which brought us out of the land of Egypt, we wot
not what is become of him.
41And they made a calf in those days, and offered
sacrifice unto the idol, and rejoiced in the works of their own
42Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host
of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, O ye
house of Israel, have ye offered to me slain beasts and sacrifices
by the space of forty years in the wilderness?
43Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star
of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them: and I
will carry you away beyond Babylon.
44Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the
wilderness, as he had appointed, speaking unto Moses, that he
should make it according to the fashion that he had seen.
45Which also our fathers that came after brought in with
Jesus into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God drave out
before the face of our fathers, unto the days of David;
46Who found favour before God, and desired to find a
tabernacle for the God of Jacob.
47But Solomon built him an house.
48Howbeit the most High dwelleth not in temples made with
hands; as saith the prophet,
49Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool: what
house will ye build me? saith the Lord: or what is the place of my
50Hath not my hand made all these things?
51Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye
do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers did, so do ye.
52Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted?
and they have slain them which shewed before of the coming of the
Just One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:
53Who have received the law by the disposition of angels,
and have not kept it.
54When they heard these things, they were cut to the
heart, and they gnashed on him with their teeth.
55But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up
stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus
standing on the right hand of God,
56And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son
of man standing on the right hand of God.
57Then they cried out with a loud voice, and stopped
their ears, and ran upon him with one accord,
58And cast him out of the city, and stoned him: and the
witnesses laid down their clothes at a young man's feet, whose
name was Saul.
59And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying,
Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.
60And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Lord,
lay not this sin to their charge. And when he had said this, he
E. JESUS THE CHRIST IS:
THE ONE MEDIATOR, ADVOCATE AND INTERCESSOR.
3:19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because
transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the
made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand
of a mediator.
Gal 3:20 Now a mediator is not a
mediator of one, but God is one.
1 Tim 2:5
For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the
Heb 8:6 But now hath he
obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also
the mediator of a better covenant, which was established
Heb 9:15 And for this
cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by
of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were
the first testament, they which are called might receive
promise of eternal inheritance.
12:24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the
sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of
1 John 2:1 My little children, these
things write I unto you, that ye sin not.
And if any man sin,
we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus
THE CHRIST IS: THE LIVING WORD or LOGOS.
born circa 120 A.D. died circa 203
Against Heresies Book 3 Chapter VI. The Holy Ghost, throughout the
Old Testament Scriptures, made mention of no other God or Lord,
save him who is the true God.
Against Heresies Book 3 Chapter XVI. Proofs from the apostolic
writings, that Jesus Christ was one and the same, the only
begotten Son of God, perfect God and perfect man.
Against Heresies Book 4 Chapter XXV.—Both covenants were
prefigured in Abraham, and in the labour of Tamar; there was,
however, but one and the same God to each covenant.
From The Book of Common
Prayer, (New York: The Church Hymnal Corporation,
1979), pp 864 - 865.
CREED OF SAINT ATHANASIUS
Quicumque Vult (Whoever
The Creed of Saint
Whosoever will be saved,
before all things it is necessary that
he hold the Catholic Faith.
Which faith except everyone do keep
whole and undefiled,
without doubt he shall perish
And the Catholic Faith is
this: That we worship one God in
Trinity, and Trinity in
Unity, neither confounding the Persons,
nor dividing the substance.
For there is one Person of
the Father, another of the Son, and
another of the Holy Ghost.
But the Godhead of the
Father, of the Son, and of the Holy
Ghost, is all one, the
Glory equal, the Majesty co-eternal.
Such as the Father is, such
is the Son, and such is the Holy
The Father uncreate, the
Son uncreate, and the Holy Ghost
incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the
The Father eternal, the Son
eternal, and the Holy Ghost eternal.
And yet they are not three
eternal, but one eternal.
As also there are not three
incomprehensibles, nor three
uncreated, but one
uncreated, and one incomprehensible.
So likewise the Father is
Almighty, the son Almighty, and the
Holy Ghost Almighty. And
yet they are not three Almighties, but
So the Father is God, the
Son is God, and the holy Ghost is God.
And yet they are not three
Gods, but one God.
likewise the father is Lord, the Son Lord, and the holy
Ghost Lord. And yet not
three Lords, but one Lord. For as like we
are compelled by the
Christian verity to acknowledge every person
by himself to be both God
So we be forbidden by the
Catholic Religion, to say, there be
three Gods, or three Lords.
The Father is made of none,
neither created nor begotten.
The Holy Ghost is of the
Father and of the Son, neither made, nor
created, nor begotten, but
So there is one Father, not
three fathers; one Son, not three
sons, one Holy Ghost, not
three Holy Ghosts.
And in this Trinity none is
afore, or after other; none is
greater, or less than
another; But the whole three Persons are
co-eternal together and
So that all things, as is
aforesaid, the Unity in Trinity
Trinity in Unity is to be worshiped. He therefore that
will be saved must think of
Furthermore, it is
necessary to eternal salvation that he
believe rightly the
Incarnation of our lord Jesus Christ.
For the right faith is ,
that we believe and confess, that our
Lord Jesus Christ, the Son
of God, is God and Man:
God, of the substance of
the Father, begotten before the
worlds; and Man; of the
substance of His Mother, born in the
Perfect God and perfect
Man, of a reasonable soul and human
Equal to the Father, as
touching his Godhead; and inferior to
Father, as touching his Manhood.
Who although he be both God
and Man, yet He is not two, but one
One, not by conversion of
the Godhead into flesh, but by taking
of the Manhood into God;
One altogether; not by
confusion of Substance, but by unity of
For as the reasonable soul
and flesh is one man, so God and man
is one Christ;
Who suffered for our
salvation, descended into hell, rose again the
third day from the dead.
He ascended into heaven, he
sitteth on the right hand of the Father,
God Almighty, from whence
he shall come to judge the quick and the
At whose coming all men
shall rise again with their bodies and shall
give account for their own
And they that have done
good shall go into everlasting; and they
that have done evil into
This is the Catholic Faith,
which except a man believe faithfully,
he cannot be saved.
Athanasius was engaged in a
dispute with many religious leaders of the day.
Perhaps the most prominent
were Pelagius, a Briton and Arius a North African. The
false teaching of Pelagius
about the nature of Christ was widespread. Evidence of
the Pelagian Arian
heresy continues today in the written commentary of Men of
Particularly in Columbia,
Tennesse a professor who received national recognition in 1988
for his Political Science
activities with regard to the first amendment, has
demonstrated his ignorance
of history. In a recent editorial in a local paper he
has perpetuated the error
by suggesting that Trinitarians are not Monotheist. This
was offered by him as fact
rather than opinion, much less with reference to the
controversy of the first
seven centuries A.D.
From the, HISTORY OF
Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages by Etienne Gilson,
random House, published
1954, page 579. a further description of Athanasius.
Athanasius, born ca. 295 at
Alexandria, died a Bishop of that city on May 2, 373.
Ever since the council of
Nicaea where he had played a leading part, Atahnasius
was engaged in ceaseless
battles against the Arians. He was five times exiled from
Alexandria as a consequence
of their attacks against him.
He is also described as
among the "Greek" Church Fathers.
SAINT AUGUSTINE, ON CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE I, Chapter 5. 397 A.D.
ROBERT MAYNORD HUTCHINS,
EDITOR IN CHIEF, GREAT BOOKS OF THE WESTERN WORLD,
Volume 18, AUGUSTINE,
(London, Encyclopedia Britannica,
Inc., 1952), pp 625 ‑
AUGUSTINE, ON CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE I, Chapter 5. 397 A.D.
true objects of enjoyment, then are the Father and The Son and The
Spirit, who are at the same time the Trinity, one
all, and common to all who enjoy Him, if He is an object, and not
the cause of all objects, or indeed even if He is the cause of
For it is not easy to find a name that will suitably express so
excellence, unless it is better to speak in this way: The Trinity,
God, of Whom are all things, through Whom are all things, in Whom
things. Thus the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,
each of these by Himself, is God, and at the same time they are
God; and each of them by Himself is a complete substance,
are all one substance. The Father is not the Son nor the Holy
the Son is not the Father nor the Holy Spirit; the Holy Spirit
not the Father nor the Son, and the Holy Spirit is one
all three belong the same eternity, the same unchangeableness. The
majesty, the same power. In the Father is unity, in the Son
in the Holy Spirit the harmony of unity and equality; and these
attributes are all one because of the Father, all equal because of
Son, and all harmonious because of the Holy Spirit.
OF CHALCEDON 451 A.D. Definition of the Union of the Divine and
Human Natures in the Person of Christ.
From The Book of Common
Prayer, (New York: The Church Hymnal Corporation,
1979), page 864.
OF CHALCEDON 451 A.D.
of the Union of the Divine
Human Natures in the Person of Christ
of Chalcedon, 451 A.D., Act V
following the holy fathers, we all with one accord teach
to acknowledge one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, at
in Godhead and complete in manhood, truly God and truly man,
also of a reasonable soul and body; of one substance
with the Father as regards his Godhead, and at the same time
one substance with us as regards His manhood: like us in all
from sin; as regards His Godhead, begotten of the Father before
but yet as regards his manhood begotten, for us men and for our
of Mary the Virgin, the god‑bearer (Theotokos); one
Christ, Son, Lord, Only‑begotten, recognized in two
confusion, without change, without division, without
distinction of natures being in no way annulled by the union, but
the characteristics of each nature being preserved and
to form one person and subsistence, not as parted or
two persons, but one and the same Son and Only‑begotten God
Lord Jesus Christ; even as the prophets from earliest times spoke
him, and our Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the
Fathers has handed down to us.
THE ENCYCLOPEDIA AMERICANA
INTERNATIONAL EDITION, Volume 6, CHALCEDON, COUNCIL OF,
Grolier, Inc., 1989), pp 243 ‑ 244
theological definition of Chalcedon was an amalgam of the Teaching
Cyril, John of Antioch, Flavian of Constantinople and Theodoret of
with the western tradition of Tertullian and St Augustine summed
in Leo's Tome to Flavian.
Apostles Creed: I learned
this most helpful statement of faith by age eight.
earliest appearance of the Textus Receptus of the Apostles Creed
found in DE SINGULIS LIBRIS CANONICIS SCARAPSUS of Priminius.
believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth;
in Jesus Christ, His only Son our Lord, Who was conceived by the
Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, Suffered under Pontius
crucified, dead and buried. He descended into hell, on the
rose again from the dead, ascended into heaven, And
right hand of God the Father Almighty; From thence he shall
judge the quick and the dead.
believe in the Holy Ghost; The holy catholic Church; The Communion
The forgiveness of sins; The resurrection of the body; And
1 Cor 8:6 But to us there
is but one God, the Father, of whom are
all things, and we in him;
and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are
all things, and we by him.
1 Thes 1:9 For they
themselves shew of us what manner of entering
in we had unto you, and how
ye turned to God from idols to serve
the living and true God;
1 Thes 1:10 And to wait for
his Son from heaven, whom he raised
from the dead, even Jesus,
which delivered us from the wrath to
1 Cor 15:1 Moreover,
brethren, I declare unto you the gospel
which I preached unto
you, which also ye have received, and
wherein ye stand;
Cor 15:2 By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what
I preached unto you, unless
ye have believed in vain.
1 Cor 15:3 For I delivered
unto you first of all that which I
also received, how that
Christ died for our sins according to the
1 Cor 15:4 And that he was
buried, and that he rose again the
third day according to the
1 Cor 15:5 And that he was
seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:
1 Cor 15:6 After that, he
was seen of above five hundred brethren
at once; of whom the
greater part remain unto this present, but
some are fallen asleep.
1 Cor 15:7 After that, he
was seen of James; then of all the
1 Cor 15:8 And last of all
he was seen of me also, as of one born
out of due time.
1 Cor 15:9 For I am the
least of the apostles, that am not meet
be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
1 Cor 15:10 But by the
grace of God I am what I am: and his grace
which was bestowed upon me
was not in vain; but I laboured more
abundantly than they all:
yet not I, but the grace of God which
was with me.
1 Cor 15:11 Therefore
whether it were I or they, so we preach,
and so ye believed.
Psalm 110:1 The LORD said
unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right
hand, until I make thine
enemies thy footstool.
Psalm 110:2 The LORD shall
send the rod of thy strength out of
Zion: rule thou in the
midst of thine enemies.
Psalm 110:3 Thy people
shall be willing in the day of thy power,
in the beauties of holiness
from the womb of the morning: thou
hast the dew of thy youth.
Psalm 110:4 The LORD hath
sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a
priest for ever after the
order of Melchizedek.
Psalm 110:5 The Lord at thy
right hand shall strike through kings
in the day of his wrath.
Psalm 110:6 He shall judge
among the heathen, he shall fill the
with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many
Psalm 110:7 He shall drink
of the brook in the way: therefore
shall he lift up the head.
1 Pet 3:19 By which also he
went and preached unto the spirits in
1 Pet 3:20 Which sometime
were disobedient, when once the
longsuffering of God waited
in the days of Noah, while the ark
was a preparing, wherein
few, that is, eight souls were saved by
1 Pet 4:6 For this cause
was the gospel preached also to them
that are dead, that they
might be judged according to men in the
flesh, but live according
to God in the spirit.
Eph 4:9 (Now that he
ascended, what is it but that he also
descended first into the
lower parts of the earth?
K. General Character of the Ecumenical Creeds.
Creeds of Christendom, with a History and
Critical notes, Volume I. The History of Creeds, by Schaff, Philip
They are three in number: the Apostles',
the Nicene, and the Athanasian Creed. The first is the simplest;
the other two are fuller developments and interpretations of the
same. The Apostles' Creed is the most popular in the Western, the
Nicene in the Eastern Churches.
To them may be
added the christological statement of the œcumenical Council
of Chalcedon (451). It has a more undisputed authority than 13the
Athanasian Creed (to which the term œcumenical applies only
in a qualified sense), but, as it is seldom used, it is generally
omitted from the collections.
These three or four creeds contain, in
brief popular outline, the fundamental articles of the Christian
faith, as necessary and sufficient for salvation. They embody the
results of the great doctrinal controversies of the Nicene and
post-Nicene ages. They are a profession of faith in the only true
and living God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, who made us, redeemed
us, and sanctifies us. They follow the order of God's own
revelation, beginning with God and the creation, and ending with
the resurrection of the body and the life everlasting. They set
forth the articles of faith in the form of facts rather than
dogmas, and are well suited, especially the Apostles' Creed, for
catechetical and liturgical use.
The Lutheran and Anglican Churches have formally recognized and
embodied the three œcumenical symbols in their doctrinal and
liturgical standards.1414 The
Lutheran Form of Concord (p. 569) calls them 'catholica
et generalia summæ auctoritatis symbola.' The
various editions of the Book of Concord give them the first place
among the Lutheran symbols. Luther himself emphasized his
agreement with them. The Church of England, in the 8th of her 39
Articles, declares, 'The three Creeds, Nicene Creed, Athanasius's
Creed, and that which is commonly called the Apostles' Creed,
ought thoroughly to be received and believed, for they may be
proved by most certain warrants of Holy Scripture.' The American
editions of the Articles and of the Book of Common Prayer omit the
Athanasian Creed, and the Protestant Episcopal Church of the
United States excludes it from her service. The omission by the
Convention of 1789 arose chiefly from opposition to the damnatory
clauses, which even Dr. Waterland thought might be left out. But
the doctrine of the Athanasian Creed is clearly taught in the
first five Articles.
The other Reformed Churches have, in their confessions, adopted
the trinitarian and christological doctrines of these creeds, but
in practice they confine themselves mostly to the use of the
Apostles' Creed.1515 The
Second Helvetic Confession, art. 11, the Gallican Confession, art.
5, and the Belgic Confession, art. 9, expressly approve the three
Creeds, 'as agreeing with the written Word of God.' In 'The
Constitution and Liturgy' of the (Dutch) Reformed Church in the
United States the Nicene Creed and the Athanasian Creed are
printed at the end. The Apostles' Creed is embodied in the
Heidelberg Catechism, as containing 'the articles of our catholic
undoubted Christian faith.' The Shorter Westminster Catechism
gives it merely in an Appendix, as 'a brief sum of the Christian
faith, agreeable to the Word of God, and anciently received in the
churches of Christ.'
This, together with the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments,
was incorporated in the Lutheran, the Genevan, the Heidelberg, and
other standard Catechisms.
TERtullian: born circa 155 A.D. died circa 220 A.D.
son of a Roman centurion from North Africa, was born around
160A.D. He received a good education in literature
and thetoric and probably practiced law for a while before being
converted to Christianity around the year 197A.D. It is
the Church Father St. Jerome who tells us that Tertullian became a
priest, but there are some indications that he may have remained a
layman. What is clear is that eloquent as he was in both
Greek and Latin, Tertullian quickly after his conversion set
himself to defending the Catholic faith against the pagans as well
as heretical Christians.
so doing coined some of the key theological terms and phrases of
the Christian theological tradition. It is in Tertullian's
writings that we first find the Latin word "trinity"
to describe the relationship between the Father, Son, and Holy
Spirit, whom he taught were "one God in three persons."
This remains a classic trinitarian formula to this day.
He also made a great contribution to Christology, the branch
of theology which seeks to understand the person of Jesus Christ
and how divinity and humanity are related in him. It is
Tertullian who gives us the formula later canonized by the
Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, teaching that Christ is "one
person in two natures."
theophilus of antioch: born circa 169 A.D.
, died circa 182 A.D.
THEOPHILUS TO AUTOLYCUS
CHAP. XV.--OF THE FOURTH DAY.
On the fourth day the luminaries were made; because God, who
possesses foreknowledge, knew the follies of the vain
philosophers, that they were going to say, that the things which
grow on the earth are produced from the heavenly bodies, so as to
exclude God. In order, therefore, that the truth might be obvious,
the plants and seeds were produced prior to the heavenly bodies,
for what is posterior cannot produce that which is prior. And
these contain the pattern and type of a great mystery. For the sun
is a type of God, and the moon of man. And as the sun far
surpasses the moon in power and glory, so far does God surpass
man. And as the sun remains ever full, never becoming less, so
does God always abide perfect, being full of all power, and
understanding, and wisdom, and immortality, and all good. But the
moon wanes monthly, and in a manner dies, being a type of man;
then it is born again, and is crescent, for a pattern of the
future resurrection. In like manner also the three days which were
before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity, of God, and His
Word, and His wisdom. And the fourth is the type of man, who needs
light, that so there may be God, the Word, wisdom, man. Wherefore
also on the fourth day the lights were made. The disposition of
the stars, too, contains a type of the arrangement and order of
the righteous and pious, and of those who keep the law and
commandments of God. For the brilliant and bright stars are an
imitation of the prophets, and therefore they remain fixed, not
declining, nor passing from place to place. And those which hold
the second place in brightness, are types of the people of the
righteous. And those, again,, which change their position, and
flee from place to place, which also are cared planets, they too
are a type of the men who have wandered from God, abandoning His
law and commandments.
justin martyr : born circa 100 A.D. ,
died circa 165 A.D.
IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH : born circa 50 A.D.
, died circa 107 A.D.
THE DIDACHE Written circa 70 A.D.
Q. THE LAMBETH CONFERENCE
the Lambeth Conference of 1920, Church reunion was the prominent
subject of discussion and an impressive invitation to such union,
called An Appeal to all Christian People, was sent forth by its
members—'the archbishops and bishops of the Holy Catholic
Church in full communion with the Church of England.' The document
opened with a 949recognition
'of all those who believe in our Lord Jesus Christ and have been
baptized into the name of the Holy Trinity, as sharing with them
membership in the universal Church of Christ which is His body.'
The bishops then proceeded to say that they believed that God
wills fellowship and that 'it is God's purpose to manifest this
fellowship, so far as this world is concerned, in an outward,
visible, and united society, holding one faith, having its own
recognized officers, using God-given means of grace, and inspiring
all its members to the world-wide service of the Kingdom of God.
This is what we mean by the Catholic Church.' Then, after
referring to the ancient episcopal Communions in East and West to
whom 'the Anglican Communion is bound by many ties of common faith
and tradition,' they addressed 'the great non-episcopal Communions
standing for rich elements of truth, liberty and life which
otherwise might have been obscured or neglected, with whom we are
closely linked by many affinities, racial, historical and
spiritual.' Expressing the judgment that 'none can doubt that
self-will, ambition, and lack of charity among Christians have
been the principal factors in the mingled process of division, and
that these, together with the blindness to the sin of disunion,
are still mainly responsible for the breaches of Christendom,'
they confessed that they 'shared in the guilt of crippling the
Body of Christ and hindering the activity of His Spirit.' Looking
forward to a united Church in which the bodies, now separated,
'will retain much that has long been distinctive in their methods
of worship and service,' the bishops affirmed that the 'visible
unity of the Church will be found to involve the whole-hearted
acceptance' of the following articles:
The holy Scriptures, as the record of God's revelation of Himself
to man, and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith; and
the Creed commonly called Nicene, as the sufficient statement of
the Christian faith, and either it or the Apostles' Creed as the
Baptismal confession of belief.
The divinely instituted sacraments of Baptism and the Holy
Communion, as expressing for all the corporate life of the whole
fellowship in and with Christ.
ministry acknowledged by every part of the Church as possessing
not only the inward call of the Spirit, but also the commission
of Christ and the authority of the whole body.
question is then asked, 'May we not reasonably claim that the
Episcopate is the one means of providing such a ministry,' but
coupled with the 'thankful acknowledgment' that the ministries of
the communions not possessing the episcopate 'have been manifestly
owned by the Holy Spirit as effective means of grace.' The
judgment is then expressed that, in accepting episcopal
ordination, 'no one could possibly be taken to repudiate his past
II. The Lambeth Quadrilateral and the Free Churches of
England.—The Appeal, reaching the Federal Council of the
Free Churches of England, was primarily acted upon 1921–25
by a Joint Conference between the Council's representatives of the
Baptist, Congregational, Moravian, Presbyterian, Primitive
Methodist, United Methodist, and Wesleyan bodies and a committee
appointed by the two archbishops of England, the archbishops
themselves being included. The deliberations were suspended by the
Archbishop of Canterbury, 1925, that 'full opportunity might be
given to the Churches to study and understand the documents
already submitted' and the Federal Council's committee
The Free Churches then individually discussed the Quadrilateral
and replied to it. In general, objection was made to the Lambeth
condition of episcopal ordination as essential, to the limitations
put upon the dispensation of the Lord's Supper, and to creeds as
of perpetually binding force. The Baptists declared that there is
'no separated body of priests.' The Congregational Union of
England and Wales denied that 'the existence of separated Churches
is necessarily contrary to the mind of Christ' and affirmed that
the view that the validity of the ministry depends on episcopal
ordination 'ran counter to their deepest convictions.'
2258A memorandum presented
June 19, 1925, by the representatives of the Anglican Church in
the Joint Conference called the ministries of the Free Churches
'real ministries,' but declared, at the same time, that, though
they 'may possess spiritual, reality and efficacy, due authority'
did not follow. 'This matter of due authority,' it added, 'is to
us one of highest importance. Spiritual efficacy is one thing, due
authority is another.' See Bell. Documents II., 79. The Churches
of Scotland took no part in negotiations, as they were engaged in
discussions over their own consolidation. The Rev. C. C. Starbuck,
writing years ago, said, 'the impression given him by the
consensus of Episcopal judgment on the Historic Episcopate is that
it is rather a demand for submission than a solicitation of
START OF SECTION II.
A further Study on
the Deity of Christ.
study is prepared from the Annotations and Notes found in the THE
NEW SCOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE by C.I. Scofield, New York,
Oxford University Press, 1967. CAUTION! I do not endorse Zionism's
Anti-Christian Dispensational Premillennial Theology AND
ESCHATOLOGY of Scofield's references to ISRAEL or JEW or
The Scripture quotations
are taken from the PC Study Bible Seattle Washington,
The section headings are
Annotation of John 1:1
Annotation of John 20:28
Annotation of Acts 9:20
Annotation of Philippians 2:6
Annotation of James 2:1
The Annotation of John 1:1
In the beginning was the
word and the word was with God, and the word was God.
The Deity of Christ is declared in scripture:
Greek Logos (Aram. Memra, used as a
designation of God in the Targums, i.e. Aramaic translations of
the O.T.). The Greek word means (1) thought or concept; and
(2) the expression or utterance of that thought. As a designation
of Christ, therefore, Logos is peculiarly suitable
because (1) in Him are embodied all the treasures of the
divine wisdom, the collective thought of God. (1 Cor. 1:24; Eph.
3:10-11; Col. 2:2-3); and (2) He is from eternity, but especially
in His incarnation, the utterance or expression of the person and
thought of Deity (Jn. 1:3-5, 9:14-18; 14:9-11; Col.2:9). In the
Being , Person, and work of Christ, Deity is expressed.
1 Cor 1:24 But unto them which are called, both Jews and
Greeks, Christ the
power of God, and the wisdom of God.
3:10 To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in
places might be known by the church the manifold
wisdom of God,
Eph 3:11 According to the eternal
purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus
2:2 That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in
unto all riches of the full assurance of
understanding, to the
acknowledgement of the mystery of God,
and of the Father, and of
Col 2:3 In
whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
1:3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing
that was made.
John 1:4 In him was
life; and the life was the light of men.
And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended
John 9:14 And it was the sabbath day
when Jesus made the clay, and opened his
9:15 Then again the Pharisees also asked him how he had received
sight. He said unto them, He put clay upon mine eyes, and
and do see.
John 9:16 Therefore
said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God,
he keepeth not the sabbath day. Others said, How can a man
is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division
John 9:17 They say unto the
blind man again, What sayest thou of him, that he
thine eyes? He said, He is a prophet.
But the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been
and received his sight, until they called the parents
of him that
had received his sight.
14:9 Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and
hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath
Father; and how sayest thou then, Shew us the
John 14:10 Believest thou not that I am
in the Father, and the Father in me?
the words that I speak
unto you I speak not of myself: but the
Father that dwelleth
in me, he doeth the works.
John 14:11 Believe me
that I am in the Father, and the Father in me: or else
me for the very works' sake.
Col 2:9 For in him
dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.
The Annotation of John 20:28
And Thomas answered and
said unto him, My Lord and my God.
The Deity of
Christ is declared in scripture:
The O.T. both intimates and explicity predicts His Deity.
The theophanies intimate the appearance of God in human
form, and His ministry thus to man ( Gen.
16:7-14; 18:2-23 especially v. 17; cp. 32:28 with Hos. 12:3-5.;
7 And I will establish my covenant between me and
thee and thy seed after thee in their generations
for an everlasting covenant, to be a
thee, and to thy seed after thee.
8 And I will give unto thee,
and to thy seed
after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger,
all the land of Canaan, for
possession; and I will be their God.
9 And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my
covenant therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee
in their generations.
10 This is my covenant, which ye
between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every
man child among you shall be circumcised.
11 And ye shall circumcise the
flesh of your
foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant
betwixt me and you.
12 And he that is eight days
old shall be
circumcised among you, every man child in
generations, he that is born in the
bought with money of any stranger, which is not of
13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is
bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised:
and my covenant shall be in your flesh
14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of
his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall
be cut off from his people; he hath
1 And the LORD appeared unto him in the plains of
Mamre: and he sat in the tent door in the heat of
2 And he lift up his eyes and looked, and,
three men stood by him: and when he saw them, he
ran to meet them from the tent door, and
himself toward the ground,
3 And said, My Lord, if now I have found favour
in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy
4 Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, and
wash your feet, and rest yourselves
5 And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort
ye your hearts; after that ye shall pass on: for
therefore are ye come to your servant. And they
said, So do, as thou hast said.
6 And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah,
and said, Make ready quickly three
fine meal, knead it, and make cakes
7 And Abraham ran unto the herd, and
calf tender and good, and gave it unto a
man; and he hasted to dress it.
8 And he took butter, and milk, and
which he had dressed, and set it before them; and
he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.
9 And they said unto him, Where
is Sarah thy
wife? And he said, Behold, in the tent.
10 And he said, I will certainly return unto thee
according to the time of life; and, lo, Sarah thy
wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in the
tent door, which was behind him.
11 Now Abraham and Sarah were
old and well
stricken in age; and it ceased to be with Sarah
after the manner of women.
12 Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying,
After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure,
lord being old also?
13 And the LORD said unto Abraham, Wherefore did
Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a
child, which am old?
14 Is any thing too hard for the LORD? At the time
appointed I will return unto thee, according to
the time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.
15 Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for
she was afraid. And he said, Nay; but thou didst
16 And the men rose up from thence, and
toward Sodom: and Abraham went with them to bring
them on the way.
17 And the LORD said, Shall I hide from Abraham
that thing which I do;
18 Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great
and mighty nation, and all the
nations of the
earth shall be blessed in him?
19 For I know him, that he
will command his
children and his household after him,
shall keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and
judgment; that the LORD may bring upon
that which he hath spoken of him.
20 And the LORD said, Because the cry of Sodom and
Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very
21 I will go down now, and see whether they have
done altogether according to the cry of it, which
is come unto me; and if not, I will know.
22 And the men turned their faces from thence, and
went toward Sodom: but Abraham stood yet
23 And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt thou also
destroy the righteous with the wicked?
28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more
Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power
with God and with men, and hast prevailed.
3 He took his brother by the heel in the womb,
and by his strength he had power with God:
4 Yea, he had power
over the angel, and
prevailed: he wept, and made supplication
him: he found him in Bethel, and there he spake
5 Even the LORD God of hosts; the
LORD is his
2 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in
a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he
looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire,
and the bush was not consumed.
3 And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see
this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.
4 And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to
see, God called unto him out of the midst of the
bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am
5 And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy
shoes from off thy feet, for the
thou standest is holy ground.
6 Moreover he said, I am the God of thy father,
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God
of Jacob. And Moses hid his face;
for he was
afraid to look upon God.
7 And the LORD said, I have surely
affliction of my people which are in Egypt, and
have heard their cry by
reason of their
taskmasters; for I know their sorrows;
8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the
hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of
that land unto a good land and a large,
land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place
of the Canaanites, and the Hittites,
Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and
9 Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children
of Israel is come unto me: and I have also seen
the oppression wherewith the Egyptians
10 Come now therefore, and I will send thee unto
Pharaoh, that thou mayest bring forth my people
the children of Israel out of Egypt.
11 And Moses said unto God, Who am
I, that I
should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should
forth the children of Israel out of Egypt?
12 And he said, Certainly I will be with thee; and
this shall be a token unto thee, that I have sent
thee: When thou hast brought forth the people out
of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.
13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, when I
unto the children of Israel, and shall say
them, The God of your fathers hath sent me
you; and they shall say to me, What is his name?
what shall I say unto them?
14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he
said, Thus shalt thou say unto the
Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
The Messiah is expressly declared to be the Son of God
(Ps.2:2-9), and God (cp. Ps. 45:6-7 with Heb. 1:8-9; Ps. 110:1
with Mt. 22:44; Acts 2:34 and Heb. 1-3; Ps. 110:4 with Heb.
5:6; 6:20; 7:17-21; and Zech. 6:13).
2 The kings of the earth set themselves, and the
rulers take counsel together, against the LORD,
and against his anointed, saying,
3 Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away
their cords from us.
4 He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the
Lord shall have them in derision.
5 Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and
vex them in his sore displeasure.
6 Yet have I set my king upon my
holy hill of
7 I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said
unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten
8 Ask of me, and I shall give thee the
for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of
the earth for thy possession.
9 Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou
shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.
6 Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the
sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre.
7 Thou lovest
righteousness, and hatest
wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed
thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.
8 But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God,
is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness
is the sceptre of thy kingdom.
9 Thou hast loved
righteousness, and hated
iniquity; therefore God, even
thy God, hath
anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy
1 The LORD said unto my Lord,
Sit thou at my
right hand, until I make
thine enemies thy
44 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit
thou on my
right hand, till I make
thine enemies thy
34 For David is not ascended into the heavens: but
he saith himself, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit
thou on my right hand,
13 But to which of the angels said he at any time,
Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies
4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou
art a priest for ever after
the order of
6 As he saith also in another place, Thou art a
priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
20 Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even
Jesus, made an high priest for ever
order of Melchisedec.
17 For he testifieth, Thou art a priest for ever
after the order of Melchisedec.
18 For there is verily a
disannulling of the
commandment going before for the
19 For the law made nothing
perfect, but the
bringing in of a better hope did; by the which we
draw nigh unto God.
20 And inasmuch as not without an oath he was made
21 (For those priests were made without an oath;
but this with an oath by him that said unto him,
The Lord sware and will not repent,
Thou art a
priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec:)
13 Even he shall build the temple of the LORD; and
he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and
upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his
throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between
His virgin birth was foretold as the means through which
God could be Immanuel, God with us (cp. Isa 7:13-14 with Mt.
13 And he said, Hear ye now, O house of David; Is
it a small thing for you to weary men, but will ye
weary my God also?
14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give
sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a
son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Now all this was done, that it
fulfilled which was spoken of the
Lord by the
a virgin shall be with child, and shall
bring forth a son, and they shall call his name
Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.
The Messiah is expressly invested with the divine names
6 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is
given: and the government shall be
shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful,
Counsellor, The mighty God,
Father, The Prince of Peace.
7 Of the increase of his government
there shall be no end, upon the throne of David,
and upon his kingdom, to
order it, and to
establish it with judgment and with justice from
henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of
hosts will perform this.
In a prophecy of His death He is called the Lord’s
“fellow” (cp Zech. 13:7 with Mat. 26:31).
7 Awake, O sword, against my
against the man that is my fellow, saith the LORD
of hosts: smite the shepherd, and the sheep shall
be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the
31 Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye
offended because of me this night: for
written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep
of the flock shall be scattered abroad.
His eternal Being is declared (cp. Mic. 5:2 with Mt. 2:6;
2 But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be
little among the thousands of Judah,
yet out of
thee shall he come forth unto me that is
ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from
of old, from everlasting.
6 And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda,
not the least among the princes of Juda: for out
of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my
42 Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh
of the seed of David, and out of
the town of
Bethlehem, where David was?
Christ Himself affirmed His Deity.
He applied to Himself the Jehovistic I AM. (The pronoun
“he” is not in the Greek; cp. Jn. 8:24, 56-58. The
Jews correctly understood this to be the Lord’s claim to
full Deity [v. 59]. See Jn. 10:33; 18:4-6, where, also, “he”
is not in the Greek text).
24 I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in
your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye
shall die in your sins.
56 Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and
he saw it, and was glad.
57 Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet
fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?
58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I
unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.
59 Then took they up stones to cast at him: but
Jesus hid himself, and went out of the
going through the midst of them, and so passed by.
33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work
we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because
that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.
4 Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should
come upon him, went forth, and said unto
Whom seek ye?
5 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth.
saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which
betrayed him, stood with them.
6 As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he,
they went backward, and fell to the ground.
(b) He claimed to be the Adonai of the
O.T. (Mt. 22:42-45. See Gen. 15:2, note).
42 Saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is
he? They say unto him, The Son of David.
43 He saith unto them, How then doth
44 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou
right hand, till I make
thine enemies thy
45 If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?
46 And no man was able to answer him
neither durst any man from that day forth ask him
any more questions.
The Annotation of Acts 9:20
he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is
the Son of God.
Peter, while maintaining the Deity of Jesus ("God hath made
that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ"),
gives special prominence to His Messiahship. Paul, fresh from the
vision of the glory, puts the emphasis on His Deity. Peter's
charge was that the Jews had crucified the Son of David (Acts
2:25-30); Paul's, that they had crucified the Lord of glory (1
Cor. 2:8). In the KJV the sense is largely lost. The point was not
that the Christ was God, a truth plainly taught by Isaiah (Isa.
7:14; 9:6-7). but that Jesus the crucified Nazarene, was the
Christ and therefore God the Son.
Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know
assuredly, that God hath
made that same Jesus, whom ye have
crucified, both Lord and Christ.
Acts 2:25 For
David speaketh concerning him, I foresaw the Lord always before
face, for he is on my right hand, that I should not be
Acts 2:26 Therefore did my heart rejoice,
and my tongue was glad; moreover
also my flesh shall rest in
Acts 2:27 Because thou wilt not leave my
soul in hell, neither wilt thou
suffer thine Holy One
to see corruption.
Acts 2:28 Thou hast made known
to me the ways of life; thou shalt make me full
of joy with
Acts 2:29 Men and brethren, let
me freely speak unto you of the patriarch
David, that he is
both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us
Acts 2:30 Therefore being a prophet, and
knowing that God had sworn with an
oath to him, that of the
fruit of his loins, according to the flesh,
he would raise up
Christ to sit on his throne;
1 Cor 2:8 Which none
of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it,
would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a
shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his
Isa 9:6 For unto us a child is
born, unto us a son is given: and the
government shall be
upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called
Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The
Isa 9:7 Of the increase of his
government and peace there shall be no end,
upon the throne
of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to
it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for
The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.
The Annotation of Philippians 2:6
Who, being in the
form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:
one of the strongest assertions in the N.T. of the Deity of Jesus
Christ. The form (Gk. morphe) is the external appearance
by which a person or thing strikes the vision; yet it is an
external form truly indicative of the inner nature from which it
springs. Nothing in this passage teaches that the eternal Word
(Jn. 1.1) emptied Himself of either His divine nature or His
attributes, but only of the outward and visible manifestation
of the Godhead. God may change form, but He can not cease to be
God. At all times His divine attributes could be exercised
according to His will. See notes at Jn. 1:1 and 20:28.
The Annotation of James 2:1
have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord
of glory, with respect of persons.
contains a very strong affirmation of the deity of the Lord Jesus
Christ. It may be translated:" ...of our Lord Jesus Christ,
the glory." The use of the title "Lord," and
the association of our Lord with the glory of God, the Shekinah,
make clear James's witness to the Lord's Deity. Furthermore, the
reference to respect of persons indicates that all earthly
distinctions disappear in the presence of Christ, the glorious
The use of the word SHEKINAH in the above note is highly
suspect as no CANONICAL SCRIPTURAL reference to this term
can be found in the KING JAMES VERSION of THE HOLY BIBLE based on
THE RECEIVED TEXT, prior to the development of NEO-ORTHODOXY
in the 1800s.
I am an ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN, I AM NOT ROMAN
CATHOLIC. The Orthodoxy I subscribe to pre-dates The Rationalism
and Materialism of the so-called Enlightenment of German
Philosophers such as Friedich Schleiermacher (1768-1834). The King
James Version of The Holy Bible based on the RECEIVED TEXT is the
sole Authority for my Religious Faith and practice.
serve no man or denomination nor for gain. I serve Jesus The
With the love of the Holy Trinity of the
ancient Catholic faith, separate from Rome, everlastingly
in The body of Jesus The Christ,
Edwin Joseph Moelder
United States of America Air Force
Great Grand Son of CSA Veterans, Revolutionary War
Veterans and French and
Indian War Veterans.
of Zipporah Murray, Christopher Gist, Shem, Heber, Abraham,